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Adding a bit of an ironic twist to the brewing legal matter on alleged copyright infringement between Adobe Systems and Moscow-based ElcomSoft Ltd. Meanwhile, Adobe Systems was closed the week of the national U.

The Times reports that -- as had previously been forewarned in coverage on our Planet eBook sister site -- in response to Adobe's threatened legal action for copyright infringement, ElcomSoft is now giving away an updated, reduced functionality version of AEBPR.

He also reportedly denied blame for any wrongdoing, pointing to PDF security as the real issue. In defending the company's initial development and sale of AEBPR, he told the Times that the product "was often downloadd by people with poor eyesight, since Adobe's e-book software did not permit the use of programs for reading text out loud. Adobe had threatened ElcomSoft with copyright infringement in violation of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act DMCA , specifically Section -- for circumventing its rights-protection designed to guard the rights of publishers and authors.

In legal circles, there currently are debates taking place over the use of encryption systems for digital content that are more restrictive for users than laws dealing with printed books. For example, its commonplace -- and legal -- for someone to re-sell a printed book; as an ebook, with most current technologies, that would be considered a violation of copyright.

Adobe Systems -- known in the industry for its strong anti-piracy litigation -- seems likely to put that notion to a test, while needing to take steps to further strengthen PDF security and to educate users on proper security implementation techniques -- keeping in mind there is no perfect, never-fail solution.

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Advanced splitting, merging, stamping, bookmarking, and link Download free demo. So why is the Kremlin doing everything possible to undermine the legitimacy of an election in which its own candidate is set to triumph?

First, it might be simple paranoia. It is hard to believe Kremlin insiders genuinely think opposition candidates Garry Kasparov or Mikhail Kasyanov could have won if they been allowed to run in an open contest. But with an administration as secretive as this one, nothing can be ruled out.

Another possible reason the Kremlin is messing with elections is because that is what the siloviki and political operatives like to do. They see no downside in doing so, and they enjoy it.

Moscow Times

Scolding and demonizing the West is a badge of honor for them. A third possibility is that the Kremlin's election management is not about the voters at all; rather, it aims to keep the pro-Kremlin elite in line.

Much has been made of the conflicts between silovik clans that have been arresting or investigating each other's agents and leaking to the press. To impose discipline on this fractious band, especially as he attempts to hop from one seat to another, Putin needs to demonstrate total control of the political machinery.

Permitting even minor challenges might be viewed by some as a weakness, which would mean increased vulnerability. Thus, the Kremlin may instruct governors to manage the votes not because the victory is in doubt, but to verify which governors are loyal and effective servants. Once they have dirtied their hands manipulating local elections, the governors are also less likely to metamorphose into anti-Kremlin campaigners for openness and liberal democracy.

A similar logic may hold for Medvedev himself. Were he to win an honest election, he might construe this as conferring a personal mandate. It is in the interest of Medvedev's associates -- one in particular -- to keep him weak and dependent.


Discrediting his election may be a way to keep Medvedev from getting ideas above his station. Perhaps the Kremlin operatives are looking ahead to future contests. Open elections are not just about picking a winner. They allow new political personalities to emerge and grab attention.

In many countries, losers from one election return refreshed to fight the next -- for example, Senator John McCain in the U. The goal in may be to keep the field empty and ensure no credible opposition candidates are waiting in the wings in Finally, the Kremlin's determination to obtain by trickery what it could win fair and square may relate to economics, not politics.

Improving Business Standards in Russia

Although Putin dismisses allegations that he has amassed a personal fortune, it is no secret that some of his friends and acquaintances have become extremely wealthy.

The next few years are crucial for Putin's inner circle; they face the task of rapidly privatizing the state assets they now control.

The point of heavily managed elections -- and managed democracy in general -- may be to prevent revelations in the press and attacks by political rivals that might jeopardize the consolidation of this business empire. My guess is that the true explanation combines several of these factors. But the economic interests seem increasingly dominant.

Kremlin insiders appear to view political controls as a necessary complement to their use of law enforcement to win business battles. If so, they have missed an important point about democracy -- in the long run, it can be the most effective way to protect the interests of insiders.Of eight would-be opposition candidates, all but three have been driven out, either disqualified or discouraged from running.

Archived from the original on 4 May Perhaps the Kremlin operatives are looking ahead to future contests.

Khaleej Times. The goal in may be to keep the field empty and ensure no credible opposition candidates are waiting in the wings in

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