before bis pupil. The Kalpa Sutra, according to a date embodied in the work itself, was composed. years after the demise of Mahavira, that is to. Bay, a.d. ill. TRANSLATOR' S PRE FACE. allotted to the Kalpa Sutra., the first of the works here presented to the E nglish reader. It com menees., and is chiefly occupied. Credits. English translation of. Holy Kalpa Sutra by. Hermann Jacobi. Downloaded in HTML format from smigabovgrisus.ga−smigabovgrisus.ga Converted by.
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Its very definition is part of negotiation processes within and between scholarly and popular discourses in past and present times. This pertains to etic as well as emic debates. There is a whole cluster of problematic areas to be considered. First, the popular image of Tantra as the dangerous, debased or exotic other and the varying othering discourses in India and the West.
Notably, the common outsider perspective has been vacillating between sex and crime. It is the crime aspect that was most prevalent in India. The indigenous negative cliche of a Tantric being a black magician if not bloodthirsty, orgiastic monster has been extremely powerful and widespread. There is a long history at least since the tenth century from classical literature, plays and hagiographies e. Bhavabhti, Kamira, akara Digvijayas to modern Bollywood cinema and popular culture.
In contrast, the prevalent image of Tantra in the West is the construct of a hedonistic religion.
A search for the word Tantra on the world wide web generates thousands of hits almost exclusively concerned with sexuality, offering techniques for better sex etc. This modern Western cliche is basically nothing other than the reversal and positive re-interpretation of negative images brought by missionaries and British administrators for whom Tantra was the peak of a post-Upanishadic degenerate Hinduism judged to be obscene, perverse and debased.
The sexual perspective was popularized and amplified by Rajneesh who transformed a religious tradition into a form of sexual psychotherapy. Both representations, the Indian and the Western one, actually contain more selfdescription than an account of reality.
Second, the history of academic Tantra studies with the construction of Tantra by scholarly representations, starting with Sir John Woodroffe, also known by his pen-name Arthur Avalon, in the s and s. Avalon had the courage not to follow the usual Vedic studies, but to counter the negative colonial Tantra cliche by editing a number of pieces of literature called Tantra, and by showing great sophistication and metaphoric imagination of the Tantras, their deep philosophical content, and their non-dual world-orientation.
The problem was that he presented an ahistorical, essentialized and unified Tantra shaped by Brahmanic informants and his selective use of later Tantric works. In the s, Agehananda Bharati confronted Avalons Tantra with a new approach: in the spirit of the s free sex and drugs came to the forefront. Whereas Avalon minimized the distinction of so-called righthand and left-hand Tantra, and restricted sexual ritual to matrimonial intercourse or to the widespread metaphoric and symbolic use and the interior processes of Kualin Yoga, for Bharati, Tantra was primarily defined by the fifth pacamakra.
He stressed the use of hemp cannabis as a disinhibiting factor and interpreted as the five Ms as aphrodisiacs and intoxicants. Later, David White went a step further.
Whereas Avalon discovered a high-class civilized Tantra in colonial times, White postulates a subaltern Tantra in the post-colonial age of deconstruction. He traces the original Kaula and the core of Tantra predating the pacamakra ritual in sexual fluid exchange and violent Yogin cults among nonelite, subaltern groups which he regards as including the Kpalikas. His wild Yogins who crave for human blood and sexual fluids are worlds away from avalons spiritual sexuality, and even from Bharatis non-confirmist yogi circles.
For a substantial critique of this suggestive thesis, one may look at Shaman Hatleys doctoral thesis - The Brahmayamalatantra and the early aiva Cult of the Yogins. Another critical point of Whites construction Kiss of the Yogin is the thin textual basis on which he builds his argument.
Even Geoffrey Samuel, who otherwise follows White, notes the problem that no direct textual material exists on what White pins down as early Kaula-period. Similarly, there are no original works left by Matsyendra whom White traces as the initiator of the succeeding Kaula-period.
Both Whites and Samuels historical reconstructions make Kaula the defining factor of Tantra, while giving astonishingly little consideration to the gamas especially the aiva Siddhnta Tantras and Vaiava Pcartra. Each of the scholars produced a different Kaula, partly due to different textual sources, different questions and perspectives philosophy, ritual, different historical and social settings , and partly due to developments in expert knowledge and the history of science, and also dependent on personal predilections and Zeitgeist phenomena e.
Victorian prudery etc. There, for instance, no real reason why Bharati interprets Kualin Yoga as a substitute for sex, although it is a vitally integrative part of the ritual he is describing.
His ritual shares this and a number of other features with the PKS, while other elements do largely differ. Kaula itself pluralist. I do not think there is a way out of this, although there may be more adequate or less adequate constructions, and more or less biased interpretations. While writing about Tantra, we are necessarily part of the imagemaking process, because there is no way out of positioning and selective reading considering the huge number and great variety of sources.
Third, Tantra is more of a hyperonym than a homogenous category.
Except for Avalon and Bharati, Tantra did not attract much academic scholarship until recently. The past thirty years, however, have witnessed dramatic developments in the study of Agamic Shaivism and Vaishnava Pancharatra and a growing interest in early heterodox Shaiva cults. The collection and edition of the hitherto largely unknown Shaiva and Vaishnava Agamas gave access to better knowledge of Tantra, but also raised new questions.
A number of agamas, for instance, are alternatively called Tantra, but there is no trace of the Panchamakara. We have learned that almost all Shaiva traditions are more or less Tantric, or that South Indian temple culture encompasses many Tantric elements such as visualizations, sacred diagrams and repetitions of monosyllabic mantra formulas - the kind of issues Avalon was talking about.
But by acknowledging this, the question of definition, history and origin came to a head, and not only the subject of Tantra, but also the perspectives on it multiplied. Some trace the roots of Tantra, for instance in the Vedic tradition, others in the agama culture or in more heterodox early Shaiva movements more or less removed from the Vedic pale, such as the Kapalika, and an increasing feminization of early Shaivism.
Some see Tantra as a phenomenon of an elite Sanskritic culture, others detect folk or even tribal origins, while still others propose a mixture of both. Hindu-Buddhist interactions and transfers were also a matter of dispute, and in particular the relationship between Tantric Shaivism and Tantric Buddhism needs further investigation.
Alexis Sanderson noted a general trend of domestication and two major transmutations: a shift from Shaiva ascetic cremation ground mysticism to the Tantric householder, and a turn from self-operative ritual held by the dualist Shaiva-Siddhanta to an intense concern with meaning and interiority within the circles of non-dualist Kashmir Shaivism championed by Abhinavagupta, which was historically greatly effective even in the Shaiva-Siddhanta.
Another shift and mutual transfer can be seen in devotionalizing Tantra and Tantricizing devotion. Tirumulars Tirumantiram whose early dating into the 7th century has been disputed , the famous goddess hymn Saundaryalahari some time after CE and before the 16th century , and the ecstatic Vaishnava Sahajiya 16th century are typical examples. Late Puranic sources such as the Devi Bhagavatam are full of devotional Tantra, and even the fiercest of the Tantric Dashamahavidya goddesses receive Bhakti-worship just like any other Puranic deity.
A post-colonial critical approach may be to resist a definition altogether. Similar to Hinduism, Tantraism has been seen as a modern construction, born of a crosscultural interplay between Eastern and Western imaginations that misrepresent the great plurality of traditions.
A sound antidote would be to call each tradition by its own name, instead of labeling it under the common heading of Tantrism, to confine oneself to the proper names of the diverse early and later Shaiva traditions, the Vaishnava Pancharatra, the Sahajiya, the manifold Shakta traditions such as Trika, Kaula, Kalikula, Srividya, the Smarta Tantra, and not to forget the non-Hindu lore like the Tibetan Buddhist Vajrayana, Jain traditions etc.
This is a solid solution, but it may not be the best one. Just as in the case of Hinduism, the Tantric traditions in question share certain common ritual elements besides differences in negotiating, for instance, the plurality of traditions and their historical transformations on the other, have to be accounted for.
Fourth, Tantra as a melting pot. Tantra is a movement that cuts across various traditions and is not confined to a specific religion.
It was a predominant religious paradigm or Zeltgeist phenomenon from around the middle of the first millennium AD to the 13th century. This necessitates a contact-zone perspective which views Tantric history as one of constant interaction, and a highly complex negotiation, blending and recording process within India and Greater India. The PKS is only one late version of osmosis, wherein hybridity of Hindu Tantra is certainly speculative, hypothetical and too simple leaving out, for instance, Buddhism , but some kind of model will be needed to explain both the plurality and the instances of osmosis which actually exist.
My model is based on the written tradition, which is no doubt a serious deficiency, but for historical re constructions, it is unfortunately not possible to undertake fieldwork in the oral lore. Some of the early power-based magic Tantras are written in defective and very rustic Sanskrit which seems to point to the world of village Shamans or other subaltern groups who had little training in Sanskrit grammar.
On the other hand, even the Kapalikas of classical Sanskrit drama, who are invariably pictured as villain, power-seeking human monsters, speak polished Sanskrit, and are presented as an educated elite. We must assume that at all times the contemporary Tantra cut through all social classes, and that written and oral lores existed side by side, including different strands of so-called right and left-hand Tantra.
Both forms of Tantra were deviant initially. I understand deviant pertaining to alternative ritual systems rather than pertaining to social stratification. As a working definition, I suggest Hindu Tantra to refer to a great number of ritual systems that were derived neither from the Vedic ritual culture nor the Smarta tradition dharma literature, epics and Puranas.
Initially, Tantra and agama were synonymous and referred to soteriological ritual systems of strong sectarian movements that developed new non-Vedic mantras and centered around the universal Lord gods Shiva and Vishnu who had appeared in the Veda as outsider-gods - but whose profiles included world-transcending or panentheistic potential three strides of Vishnu and Shatarudriya.
Eventually the concept of Shakti, the creative power of the god, and personified as his spouse, grew even stronger and more independent, superseding the male. Within India and the expanding region of Greater India, a number of transfers and transformations happened, the most important one being a growing blending of traditions and at the same time an increasing bifurcation of socalled right and left-handers.
Some Tantric rites have been judged heterodox by orthodox Brahmins, while the majority of them was wholeheartedly added to the traditional Smarta rites. The early Shaiva sects already included ascetic radicals whose liberation and divine power-seeking mantra practices included antinomian rites, and heterodoxy increased in the general process of globalizing Sanskrit culture in all parts of India. The left-hand Tantrics, many of them belonging to the upper, highly educated stratum of society, were ready to integrate all kinds of folk and tribal customs judged impure by the Smarta mainstream.
Some of them developed a real craze for the deviant and impure such as necrophilia, or menstrual blood, sexual fluids, faeces regarded as particularly strong power-substances , resulting in deliberate inclusion of radical non-conformist behavior and wild females from folk cultures and popular Hinduism. Later Bhairava Agamas including the Yamala Tantras and early Kaula appear to be a result of this process, but the Kaula soon transformed itself into the more domesticated Panchamakara ritual and highly interiorized forms of divine female agency.
Side by side with growing and transformed heterodoxy, there was increasing inclusion in and fusion with Smarta Hinduism, due to the expanding temple culture, royal sponsorship, and not least the popularity of the non-Vedic mantras as instruments of empowerment and direct communication with superhuman forces. This Tantra-Smarta merger resulted, for instance, in a shift to pragmatic religion and non-clan-based everyday Tantra e.
Another result was a stronger bifurcation of right and left-hand Tantra because Tantra entered the space of Veda-based Smarta orthodoxy. In fact, the right-hand Tantra starting with the Agama-based temple worship merged so much with mainstream culture that it is no longer recognized as Tantra today. The term Tantra was left to designate deviant left-hand Tantra. The connotation was one with low castes, danger, dirty things etc.
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My major point is that Tantra witnessed a highly interactional history and that various processes of negotiation took place between Tantra and normative Brahmanism which eventually transformed both. Tantra shaped Hinduism and was itself reshaped. Most of the early radical so-called left-handers disappeared from the scene, while clan-based left-hand Kaulas among higher classes would heighten their codes of secrecy and be more self-assured and assertive about their Veda-superior authority.
Fifth, the identification of Tantra and Kaula associated with ritualized sexuality, which has been a major factor defining Tantra in Western approaches , rather than Tantra and Agama terms that are used interchangeably in the Agama lore or Tantra and mantra practice which has been a major defining moment in Tantric insider discourses. Mantras have been outstandingly important since the time of early Shaiva and Siddha cultures, particularly in the Mantrapitha and Vidyapitha distinguished by male and female mantras, i.
In later Tantra the terms Tantra and Mantrashastra became practically synonyms. The identification of Kaula and Tantra barred our understanding of Tantra as a manifold and polyvalent phenomenon that has to a large extent Shaiva, Agamic and mantric roots and yet plural expressions since ancient times, and most of all a history of many processes of fusion, transformation and bifurcation. The focus on Kaula probably has many different reasons, or more precisely a melange of them.
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I suppose a not insignificant one was Kaula as the fascinating and exotic other par excellence - particularly if narrowed down to sexual issues.
Another reason lies in the history of Western studies, which have been largely confined to Kaula or to Srividya as the latest Kaula evolute, whereas Agama studies have emerged only in the last three decades. And finally, the actual history of Tantra in India: if the historical model above is correct, Kaula was one of the few remaining deviant systems that offended Smarta social codes and remained visible as Tantra.
This would explain Teun Goudriaans observation that most literatures bearing the title Tantra belong to the Shakta literatures of the Kaula type, and corroborate his proposition that the Kaula movement is the most important and most characteristic within Tantra.
A Kaula work of great formative influence was, according to Goudriaan, the Kularnava Tantra, which is also often glossed by Avalon and heavily quoted by the PKS no less than 27 times. However, the Kularnava 13th century already belongs to a more domesticated Kaula compared with older Kaula sources and their wild Yoginis that probably developed within the Shaiva Vidyapitha centered on female mantra-deities and the potency of impure ritual.
The latter leads us to a pre-Kaula left-hand Tantra which is male-dominated and found in the Bhairava Tantras or Bhairava Agamas. These works contain some radical, antinomian practices that apparently intensified when shifting to female dominance in Vidyapitha sources around ninth century or earlier , such as the Brahmayamala Tantra one of the rare Bhairava Agamas which did survive.
Here we find Kapalika vows that involve things like drinking liquor from skull-caps, making fire sacrifice in the mouths of corpses to revive the dead, offering human flesh, faeces, semen and blood from ones own body, and also some instances of sexual ritual, because sexual fluids and menstrual blood were among the most precious power-substances for achieving supernatural powers and embodied divinity.
It is typical that the Bhairava Agamas were excluded from the classical Shaiva Agama lore, while their traditional number of sixty-four led to the indigenous tradition of speaking of sixty-four Tantras.
It was this radical left-hand section of the Shaiva Agamas that played an important role in giving Tantra a bad name in India. Compared with it, Kaula will seem more decent.
Instead of ascetic mortuary and exorcist practice in lonely places, the Kaula ritual involves external and internal consorts intoxication, bliss, kundalini shakti and is practiced behind closed doors by liberation seeking householders. The cremation gorund shifts to the body and consciousness, and we find increasingly interiorized conceptions of divine agencies, emphasis on ecstatic experience in erotic ritual and yogic conceptions of the presence of the Shaktis - that is there is greater concern with internal yogic nectars than with impure liquids like sexual fluids and menstrual discharge.
However, exoteric manifestations did not die out, nor was the former ritual devoid of the virtual and visionary the Brahmayamala even knows the kundalini shakti as inner consort, who would later simply attain much more importance. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jain prayers. Ethics of Jainism Sallekhana. Major figures. Major sects. Diwali Mahavir Jayanti Paryushana Samvatsari. The Clarendon Press. Jain literature. Fourteen Purvas The Prior Knowledge — considered totally lost. Digambara Texts.
The twelfthcentury king kumarapala recorded commissioning and distributing hundreds copies the kalpasutra assist propagating the virtues jainism and was instrumental the founding twentyone monastic libraries bhandars patan his capital.
Several ragas may share the same scale. Parmeshthidaas jain aadhyatmik jyoti sumeruchandra. Also literature contains kalpasutra. Like buddhism jainism also originated the eastern parts india i.
Our jain digest team has done wonderful job producing enewsflash and sending. Publisher ajmer jain printing press dc.
Some the oldest known books hindi and gujarati were written jain scholars. Title shri kalpasutra mul. Jai jinendra dear sadharmik brothers and sisters are final countdown moments the biggest celebration event the jca calendar.
Jain ramayan gujarati filetype pdf look most relevant jain gujarati sahitya pdf down websites out 1. Bihar parts uttar pradesh and west bengal. Between dualist and nondualist vedanta. Sanskritprakrit derived buddhist pali language and the jain kalpasutra were know to. In common with most hindu and jain manuscripts this date which still retain the ancient format. Jain aarogyam revised form for mediclaim for jains today jio has published new form divya bhaskar gujarati news paper dated 9th aug.
Ing jain doctrine with gujarati gloss download gujarati fonts. Beyond heavens beyond scriptural rules. Publications mumbai samachar gujarati news paper. Htm kalpasutra gujarati. Kalpasutra recited. A translation the kalpa sutra jainism often referred jain dharma. Old marathi rajasthani gujarati hindi kannad tamil german and english. The illustrated manuscripts that came from various parts gujarat and rajputana principally from the collections jain monastic libraries principally the kalpasutra the kalakhcharya kathd and the sangrahm sutrawere first designated jain paintings.
Comsa hindi and comsu gujarati. Useful type catalogs pdf for devnagari hindi marathi gujarati punjabi. O oat moon put now rain pee gujarati word for water the end. Classification kalpsutra dc.The PKs defines linear developments and reveals that Tantric history remained confusingly complex and opaque even during an epoch when the heyday of Tantra lasting from the 5th to the 13th century was actually over.
Namespaces Article Talk. There is an ideology free of castes which has been always typical of Kaula at least within the ritual context. PKS 1. But in fact, this substantial difference is not easy to discern, since the panchamakara and particularly intercourse are communicated in a rather hidden and cryptic way and remain almost invisible to a casual glance, because the verbal material and techniques of imagination are much more dominant.
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